Kia and Volkswagen brand were the top gainers among major automakers in Russia last year as the country's new-car market rebounded from a four-year slump with 12 percent growth.
Sales rose to 1.56 million in 2017, according to data from the Association of European Businesses (AEB) lobby group. In 2016, sales fell 11 percent.
Registrations in December grew 14 percent to 166,013, the tenth month of consecutive growth.
"The market has a long way to go return to its former strength but a first and important step in the right direction has been made," said Joerg Schreiber, head of the AEB Automobile Manufacturers Committee.
Kia's sales increased 22 percent in 2017 but were flat in December. VW brand sales rose 21 percent for the year and 37 percent last month.
Market leader Lada had a strong year with 17 percent sales growth in 2017 and 18 percent in December. No. 2 Hyundai was up 9 percent for the year and 7 percent last month. Third-place Renault’s volume rose 17 percent in 2017 and 6 percent in December.
Ford is increasing its Russian production on growing demand for its SUVs and vans. Ford's volume was up 18 percent last year and 37 percent in December.
Audi, Toyota, Mercedes perform poorly
Audi, Toyota and Mercedes-Benz were among automakers that performed badly.
Audi's sales slumped 18 percent for the year and 12 percent in December. Mercedes volume was flat in 2017 and but increased 19 percent last month. Toyota sales were flat last year and gained 4 percent in December.
• Download PDF, above right, for December and full-year Russia sales by brand, automaker and group.