BMW outsold rival Mercedes-Benz for the second year in a row by better navigating the supply-chain issues hampering global auto production.
Worldwide deliveries of core BMW-brand cars fell 5 percent to 2.10 million last year, edging Mercedes, whose shipments slipped 1 percent to 2.04 million. Audi sales fell 3.9 percent to 1.61 million.
While BMW and Mercedes both grew sales in the final months of 2022, they could not compensate for business lost during the first half, when parts shortages and the war in Ukraine crimped output.
Automakers have more recently faced intensifying headwinds including soaring energy and borrowing costs.
Tesla shares plummeted amid concerns over demand in China, the world's biggest auto market, where domestic players BYD, Xpeng and Nio are putting increased pressure on the U.S. brand.
BMW, Mercedes and Audi all saw sales drop in China as stringent COVID lockdowns kept customers away from showrooms.
Mercedes heavily discounted the price for its flagship EQS electric sedan last year in a move to reposition in a competitive market.